Valorización de residuos de la obtención de almidón de ñame espino para su uso como bioadsorbente en la remoción de Cromo (VI) y Níquel (II)

Resumen

Introducción: Entre los metales pesados descargados en fuentes hídricas se encuentran el Cromo (VI) y el Níquel (II), los cuales causan efectos peligrosos a la salud.

Objetivo: Optimizar el efecto de la concentración inicial de contaminante, temperatura y dosis de adsorbente usando residuos del proceso de obtención de almidón de ñame espino (D. rotundata) en la remoción de Cromo (VI) y Níquel (II).

Metodología: Se optimizó aplicando la Metodología Superficie Respuesta (RSM), realizando el estudio cinético y de equilibrio a la condición óptima encontrada, evaluando el ajuste de los datos de cinética a los modelos de pseudo-primer orden, pseudo-segundo orden, Elovich; los de isotermas a los modelos de Langmuir y Freundlich. Se calcularon los parámetros termodinámicos: Energía libre de Gibbs (ΔG°), Entalpía (ΔH°) y Entropía (ΔS°), por el método gráfico de Van’t Hoff.

Resultados: De la MSR se encontró que las condiciones óptimas para Cr(VI) fueron 76.6 ºC, 0.14 g y 368,18 ppm, y para Ni(II) 70 ºC, 1,19 g y 31,82 ppm. La capacidad de adsorción máxima fue de 66,25 mg/g de Cr(VI) y 17.67 mg/g de Ni(II). El modelo cinético de pseudo-segundo orden ajusta los datos de adsorción de Cr(VI) y el de Elovich ajusta los de Ni(II); por su parte el modelo de isoterma de Freundlich mostró el mejor ajuste de los datos de adsorción de los iones en estudio. De los valores de ΔG°, ΔS°, y ΔH° se establece que el proceso para Cr (VI) es endotérmico, no espontáneo no favorable y reversible; para Ni (II) que es no espontaneo, exotérmico y controlado por fisisorción.

Conclusiones: Los residuos del proceso de extracción de almidón de ñame son un adsorbente efectivo para la remoción de Cr(VI) y Ni(II) presentes en solución acuosa y la MSR arrojó valores óptimos que sirven de base para la escalabilidad del proceso.

Palabras clave: Cinética, Dioscorea rotundata, Isotermas de adsorción, Metodología superficie respuesta, Optimización

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Acerca de los Autores

Candelaria Nahir Tejada Tovar, Universidad de Cartagena. Cartagena, (Colombia)

Candelaria Tejada Tovar: es actualmente profesor en el Departamento de Ingeniería Química y del programa de Ingeniería Química en la Universidad de Cartagena. Es parte del Process Design and Biomass Utilization Research Group (IDAB). Obtuvo maestría en Ingeniería Ambiental en el 2014, título otorgado por la Universidad de Cartagena. Sus investigaciones se centran en tratamiento del agua, adsorción y medio ambiente. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2323-1544

Ángel Villabona Ortíz, Universidad de Cartagena. Cartagena, (Colombia)

Ángel Villabona Ortíz: es actualmente profesor en el Departamento de Ingeniería Química y del programa de Ingeniería Química en la Universidad de Cartagena. Es parte del Process Design and Biomass Utilization Research Group (IDAB). Obtuvo maestría en Ingeniería Ambiental en el 2014, título otorgado por la Universidad de Cartagena. Sus investigaciones se centran en tratamiento del agua, adsorción y medio ambiente. https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8488-1076

Paula Andrea Ramírez Vásquez, Universidad de Cartagena. Cartagena, (Colombia)

Paula Ramírez Vásquez: Recibió su título de Ingeniera Química en el 2018 en la Universidad de Cartagena.   Sus investigaciones se centran en tratamiento del agua, adsorción y medio ambiente.  https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0145-232X.

Publicado
2020-01-27
Cómo citar
Tejada Tovar, C., Villabona Ortíz, Ángel, & Ramírez Vásquez, P. (2020). Valorización de residuos de la obtención de almidón de ñame espino para su uso como bioadsorbente en la remoción de Cromo (VI) y Níquel (II). INGE CUC, 16(1). https://doi.org/10.17981/ingecuc.16.1.2020.02
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