Correlational analysis between the economics, socio-demographic indices and statistics of contagion due to Covid-19, applying the Clustering methodology in countries of America



Palabras clave:

Grouping, data, ICR, mathematical model, pandemic, linear regression, multiple regression


Introduction: This research is motivated, by the current world situation, caused by the pandemic declared by the WHO before the spread and severity of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), notified for the first time in Wuhan (China) on December 31 of 2019. Through mathematical and statistical analysis, it seeks to show and explain in an expeditious manner, the causes for which there is a higher rate of contagion and lethality due to the virus, in different countries, taking into consideration patterns associated with social political behavior and economic, as a first approach to knowing statistics that allow generating forecasts for future periods, given the conditions.

 Objective: The main objective of this work is to define the correlation of the economic, social and demographic variables of the countries of America, with respect to the contagion of the virus, proposing a forecast model on the level of contagion in each cluster proposed by the different regions of the American continent. Methodology: The study performs clustering (grouping) of the countries of America with respect to their geographical position North America, Central America and the Caribbean islands and South America, followed by a search for statistical data on social, economic and demographic indicators of the countries of America in recent years and statistics of levels of contagion of COVID 19 in sources such as international organizations regulating health issues. Next, a characterization and correlation of the collected data was carried out, to finally, based on the results of the correlation, make a forecast of the level of contagion that would be reached by each of the regions. Results: The purpose of this document is to provide information on the countries of North America, Latin America and the Caribbean with respect to the analysis of mortality from COVID-19, through methods of analysis of mortality from all causes as one of the approaches proposed to contribute to the assessment of the true magnitude of the burden of the COVID-19 epidemic in these countries.


Conclusions: The results show interesting information, since the Latin American curve turned out to be much less pronounced than that of the United States, in terms of contagion and deaths, despite the socio-demographic conditions, economic, technological and political opportunities. This analysis invites us to find out which are those correlations that directly impact the behavior of infections, taking into account variables such as age, gender, stratum, level of education, and other sociodemographic characteristics that may influence the spread or containment of the virus. Future research: It is proposed to study the correlation between race, sex, region and age vs levels of COVID 19 contagion in the Colombian context and the application of more robust statistical tools to develop models that allow correlation of variables and define possible level scenarios contagion, in addition to conducting a correlation study of economic and socio-demographic variables with respect to other diseases such as zika and dengue


Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.


Real Académica Española, “Diccionario de la lengua española.” 2014, Accessed: Oct. 31, 2019. [Online]. Available:

T. N. Jilani, R. T. Jamil, and A. H. Siddiqui, “H1N1 Influenza (Swine Flu).,” Treasure Island (FL), 2020.

S. Hamidi, S. Sabouri, and R. Ewing, “Does Density Aggravate the COVID-19 Pandemic?: Early Findings and Lessons for Planners,” J. Am. Plan. Assoc., 2020, doi: 10.1080/01944363.2020.1777891.

B. Ather, T. M. Mirza, and P. F. Edemekong, “Airborne Precautions.,” Treasure Island (FL), 2020.

P. S. Peixoto, D. Marcondes, C. Peixoto, and S. M. Oliva, “Modeling future spread of infections via mobile geolocation data and population dynamics. An application to COVID-19 in Brazil,” PLoS One, vol. 15, no. 7 July, 2020, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0235732.

D. Rosselli, “Epidemiología de las pandemias,” Medicina (B. Aires)., vol. 42, pp. 168–174, Jul. 2020.

Organización Panamericana de la Salud, “Por qué es importante el desglose de datos durante una pandemia,” 2020. doi:

Organización Panamericana de la Salud, “Pandemia de COVID-19: estadísticas sobre el acceso a la BVS y el alcance de la cooperación técnica de BIREME,” Centro Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Información en Ciencias de la Salud [BIREME], 2020.

P. G. Ruiz Mamani, W. C. Morales-García, M. White, and M. S. Marquez-Ruiz, “Properties of a scale of concern for COVID-19: Exploratory analysis in a Peruvian sample,” Med. Clin. (Barc)., no. xx, pp. 3–5, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.medcli.2020.06.022.

S. Hamidi, R. Ewing, and S. Sabouri, “Longitudinal analyses of the relationship between development density and the COVID-19 morbidity and mortality rates: Early evidence from 1,165 metropolitan counties in the United States,” Heal. Place, vol. 64, no. June, p. 102378, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2020.102378.

A. Medeiros de Figueiredo, A. Daponte, D. C. Moreira Marculino de Figueiredo, E. Gil-García, and A. Kalache, “Case fatality rate of COVID-19: absence of epidemiological pattern,” Gac. Sanit., no. xx, pp. 10–12, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.gaceta.2020.04.001.

Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social, “Análisis de la epidemia de covid-19 en el país,” Boletín de Prensa No 223 de 2020, 2020.

I. Cuc and G. D. Sosa, “Application of Clustering Techniques for Lung Sounds to Improve Interpretability and Detection of Crackles * Aplicación de Técnicas de Clustering en Sonidos Adventicios para Mejorar la Interpretabilidad y Detección de Estertores,” vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 53–62, 2015, [Online]. Available:

I. F. Meza Castro, A. E. Herrera Acuña, and L. G. Obregón Quiñones, “Experimental determination of new statistical correlations for the calculation of the heat transfer coefficient by convection for flat plates, cylinders and tube banks,” Inge Cuc, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 9–17, 2017, doi: 10.17981/ingecuc.13.2.2017.01.

A.Blackman, A. Ibañez , and P.Kiefer, “La Política Publica frente al Covid-19 Recomendaciones para América Latina y el Caribe ,” Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo,2020.

Vaughan, L., Veruttipong, D., Shaw, J.G., , Edwards, L., Winget, M. “Relationship of socio-demographics, comorbidities, symptoms and healthcare access with early COVID-19 presentation and disease severity,”Open Access ,2021

Gaskin, D.J., Zare, H. and Delarmente, B.A. “Geographic disparities in COVID-19 infections and deaths: The role of transportation” Transport Policy 102 pp 35-46, 2021.

Quan, D., Luna Wong, L., Shallal Opara, I.N. and Zervos, M. “Impact of Race and Socioeconomic status on Outcomes in patient Hospitalized with Covid 19” Journal of General Internal Medicine , 2021.

Quan, D., Luna Wong, L., Shallal Opara, I.N. and Zervos, M. “Impact of Race and Socioeconomic status on Outcomes in patient Hospitalized with Covid 19” Journal of General Internal Medicine , 2021

Yiannoutsos, CT, Halverson, P.K., and Menachemi, N. “Bayesian estimation of SARS-CoV-2 prevalence in Indiana by random testing” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America,2021.

Snowden, L.R. and Graaf, G. “COVID-19, Social Determinants Past, Present, and Future, and African Americans’ Health” Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparates 8(1) PP 12-20,2021.

Gayam, V., Chobufo, M.D., Merghani, M.A.,Garlapati, P.R. and Adler, M.K. “Clinical characteristics and predictors of mortality in African-Americans with COVID-19 from an inner-city community teaching hospital in New York” Journal of Medical Virology 93(2), pp.812-819.2020

Kim, A.T., Kim, C., Tuttle, S.E.and Zhang, Y. “COVID-19 and the decline in Asian American employment” Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 2020

Ferreira, C.E., Bonvehi, P.E., de la Torre, J.C.G., Sáenz-Flor, K.V. and Condino-Neto, A. “Algorithms for testing COVID-19 focused on use of RT-PCR and high-affinity serological testing: A consensus statement from a panel of Latin American experts” 2021 , International Journal of Diseases 103 PP 260-267

Luo, Y., Yan, J. and McClure, S. “Distribution of the environmental and socioeconomic risk factors on COVID-19 death rate across continental USA: a spatial nonlinear analysis” 2021, Environmental Science and Pollution Research 28(6), pp. 6587-6599

Reid, A., Rhonda-Perez, E., Schenker, M.B. “Migrant workers, essential work, and COVID-19” American Journal of Industrial Medicine 64(2),pp 73-77

Zhai, W., Liu, M., and Peng, Z.-R. “Social distancing and inequality in the United States amid COVID-19 outbreak” 2021, Environment and Planning A 53(1), pp. 3-5

Raines, A.M., Tock, J.L., McGrew, S.J., , Constans, J.I. and Franklin, C.L. “Correlates of death among SARS-CoV-2 positive veterans: The contribution of lifetime tobacco use” 2021, Addictive Behaviors 113,106692

Martins-Filho, P.R., de Souza Araújo, A.A., Pereira, L.X., de Oliveira Góes, M.A., and Santos, V.S. “Factors associated with mortality among hospitalized patients with covid-19: A retrospective cohort study” 2021, American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 104(1), pp. 103-105

Lunski, M.J., Burton, J., Tawagi, K., (...), Larned, Z., Moore, B. “Multivariate mortality analyses in COVID-19: Comparing patients with cancer and patients without cancer in Louisiana” 2021, Cancer 127(2), pp. 266-274



Cómo citar

Navarro Romero, E. del C., Gelves Alarcón, Óscar M., & García Corrales, N. (2021). Correlational analysis between the economics, socio-demographic indices and statistics of contagion due to Covid-19, applying the Clustering methodology in countries of America. INGE CUC, 17(1).